A four wheel vehicle moving along the highway at around 60 miles per hour, will produce 4000 controlled explosions per minute inside the engine as the spark plugs which ignite the fuel in cylinder to move the vehicle down the road. These explosions produce an enormous amount of heat and,if not controlled, will destroy an engine in minutes. The cooling system controls the high temperatures.
The basic cooling system of cars contains liquid coolant being circulated through the engine and then out to the radiator to be cooled by the air stream of the vehicle. But now a day cooling system must maintain the engine at a constant temperature whether the temperature is high or low. If the engine temperature is too low then fuel economy will suffer and emissions will rise. When temperature to get too hot for too long, the engine will self-destruct.
Type of cooling system motor vehicles
1. Liquid cooled or indirect cooling system- There are six basic types of liquid cooling systems:
• Closed-loop dry system
• Closed-loop dry system with trim cooling
• Open-loop evaporative system
• Closed-loop evaporative system
• Chilled water system
2. Oil cooling: Oil is already working as a lubricant so coolant tank,pumps ,radiator are needed.
How cooling system work?
The cooling system contain passages inside the engine block and heads and water pump to circulate the coolant, a thermostat to control the temperature of the coolant, a radiator to cool the coolant, a radiator cap and to control the pressure in the motor vehicle system.
The fluid is cooled and it returns back to the engine to absorb more heat. The water pump helps to keep the fluid moving through this system of plumbing and hidden passages. A thermostat is placed between the engine and the radiator to make sure that the coolant stays and reduce the temperature. If the coolant temperature falls then the thermostat blocks the coolant flow to the radiator and forcing the fluid to move directly back to the engine. The coolant will continue to circulate until it reaches temperature at the point the thermostat will open a valve and allow the coolant back through the radiator.
In order to prevent the coolant from boiling, the cooling system is designed to low pressure. The radiator capis design in such a way to maintain the pressure in the cooling system. The cap is designed to release excess the pressure handle. This is a type of closed cooling system.
As you can see there are many types of cooling systems available in the market to satisfy your requirements. It is best to involve your cooling system specialist from in your planning to help you choose the best system to fit your needs. Nearly 30-40% heat is converted into mechanical work. So it is required in any motor vehicles, to utilize to convert waste heat into useful work.